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And experiments have other shortcomings. For instance, they must be (3) designed to prevent subjects from being financially worse off as a result of participation, whereas any “real-world” UBI would almost certainly be introduced in tandem with a funding mechanism that causes some individuals to be net payees. Finally, as existing experiments have been designed, the target populations (4) consist of low-income individuals, the unemployed, and/or welfare recipients, and (5) consist mainly of adults who have already been acculturated into the present society and its ethos of work and consumption.

2.1 Experiments are limited in duration.

Most of the current BI-related experiments are two or three years in length. In the United States, the non-profit YC Research plans to launch an experiment in which some participants receive cash transfers for five years. The only projects of longer duration are taking place in developing nations: GiveDirectly is providing a 12-year basic income to 40 villages in its major experiment in Kenya , and the Brazilian non-profit organization ReCivitas has introduced a “ TROUSERS Casual trousers THIRD DENIM LTD hNYlAR
” in the village Quatinga Velho (note that the latter is not an “experiment” in the scientific sense). E ven if longer term experiments were affordable, the pressure to obtain results would generally militate against them.

The short-term nature of experiments poses at least two major shortcomings vis-à-vis our present interests:

First, the payments’ limited duration disincentivizes financially risky behavior, such as abandoning a job or career. We should expect that few individuals would choose to make radical changes to their work and life if they are guaranteed unconditional cash payments for only two or three years. A two- or three-year gap in employment might jeopardize not only one’s ability to return to one’s former job or career path but also one’s general future prospects in the labor market.

Secondly, let’s assume that some participants do radically alter their workforce participation despite the short-term nature of the experiment (e.g. they might use the money to help provide financial security during the process of downshifting from a lucrative full-time job, with the confidence that the experiment’s timeframe is long enough to permit them to settle into stable part-time employment or freelance work). Under a society-wide and permanent basic income, such “first movers” might inspire others also to seek alternatives to the norm of full-time permanent employment, initiating a sort of ripple effect whereby downshifting and other such alternative lifestyles gain in practice and acceptance. A two- or three-year experiment, however, is unlikely to be long enough to observe these more slowly accruing effects on social attitudes toward work.

For Health

Promoting healthy environments for all people, everywhere

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Meet or exceed local outdoor air ventilation rate guidelines to control indoor sources of odors, chemicals and carbon dioxide. Filter outdoor and recirculated air with a minimum removal efficiency of 75% for all particle size fractions including nano. Avoid outdoor air intakes at street level or near other outdoor sources of pollutants. Commission systems, conduct regular maintenance and monitor ventilation in real-time to prevent and resolve ventilation issues promptly.


Choose supplies, office supplies, furnishings and building materials with low chemical emissions to limit sources of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds. Check for legacy pollutants such as lead, PCBs and asbestos. Limit vapor intrusion by using a vapor barrier. Maintain humidity levels between 30-60% to mitigate odor issues. Conduct annual air quality testing. Respond to and evaluate occupant concerns.


Meet minimum thermal comfort standards for temperature and humidity and keep thermal conditions consistent throughout the day. Provide individual level thermal control, where possible. Survey the space and occupants regularly to identify zones that underperform. Respond to and evaluate occupant concerns. Commission systems, conduct regular maintenance and monitor temperature and humidity in real-time to prevent and resolve thermal comfort issues promptly.


Conduct regular inspections of roofing, plumbing, ceilings and HVAC equipment to identify sources of moisture and potential condensation spots. When moisture or mold is found, immediately address moisture source and dry or replace contaminated materials. Identify and remediate underlying source of the moisture issue.


Use high efficiency filter vacuums and clean surfaces regularly to limit dust and dirt accumulation, which are reservoirs for chemicals, allergens, and metals. For homes, take off shoes at the door to limit tracking in dirt. Develop an integrated pest management plan with a focus on preventative measures such as sealing entry points, preventing moisture buildup and removing trash. Avoid pesticide use, if possible. Train building management how to respond to pest problems and complaints.


Meet fire safety and carbon monoxide monitoring standards. Provide adequate lighting in common areas, stairwells, emergency egress points, parking lots and building entryways. Manage points of egress and the physical perimeter. Be situationally aware through video monitoring, interactive patrols and incident reporting. Maintain a holistic emergency action plan and mechanism for communication to building occupants.

The second caveat is that antisocial preferences, such as sadism, envy and resentment, have to be excluded. Harsanyi achieves this by claiming that such preferences partially exclude those people from the moral community:

Utilitarian ethics makes all of us members of the same moral community. A person displaying ill will toward others does remain a member of this community, but not with his whole personality. That part of his personality that harbours these hostile antisocial feelings must be excluded from membership, and has no claim for a hearing when it comes to defining our concept of social utility. Womens Slur Ankle Strap Sandals New Look DCTJoq1Qno
: 56

Main article: Negative utilitarianism

In The Open Society and its Enemies (1945), Karl Popper argued that the principle "maximize pleasure" should be replaced by "minimize pain". He thought "it is not only impossible but very dangerous to attempt to maximize the pleasure or the happiness of the people, since such an attempt must lead to totalitarianism." [58] He claimed that: [59]

there is, from the ethical point of view, no symmetry between suffering and happiness, or between pain and pleasure… In my opinion human suffering makes a direct moral appeal, namely, the appeal for help, while there is no similar call to increase the happiness of a man who is doing well anyway. A further criticism of the Utilitarian formula "Maximize pleasure" is that it assumes a continuous pleasure-pain scale that lets us treat degrees of pain as negative degrees of pleasure. But, from the moral point of view, pain cannot be outweighed by pleasure, and especially not one man's pain by another man's pleasure. Instead of the greatest happiness for the greatest number, one should demand, more modestly, the least amount of avoidable suffering for all...

The actual term negative utilitarianism was introduced by Cutout sneaker Lanvin sC0ZK7MHRS
as the title to his 1958 reply to Popper [60] in which he argued that the principle would entail seeking the quickest and least painful method of killing the entirety of humanity.

Negative total utilitarianism, in contrast, tolerates suffering that can be compensated within the same person. [61] [62]

Negative preference utilitarianism avoids the problem of moral killing with reference to existing preferences that such killing would violate, while it still demands a justification for the creation of new lives. [63] A possible justification is the reduction of the average level of preference-frustration. [64]

Others see negative utilitarianism as a branch within modern hedonistic utilitarianism, which assigns a higher weight to the avoidance of suffering than to the promotion of happiness. [65] The moral weight of suffering can be increased by using a "compassionate" utilitarian metric, so that the result is the same as in prioritarianism . [66]

Bondi blue ” was the color chosen for the first iMac, allegedly named after the waters of Bondi Beach in Sydney, Australia. In early 1999, Steve Jobs announced a line of five new iMacs spanning a range of colors: blueberry, grape, tangerine, lime, and strawberry. Colors made the computer feel more human and let users express themselves. Even Apple’s pro products would later get a splash of color, like the iMac-inspired line of Studio Displays that debuted in 1999.

Engineering colorful, translucent Macs turned out to be no small task. According to Jobs, the plastics simply didn’t exist when Apple began their research. The company’s teams spent over 6 months determining how to produce the exact colors they wanted.

Playlist: Apple’s iMac color commercials.

Less than a year later, the iMac saw another major design change. Refined styling including a shorter case, improved speakers, and slot-loading optical drive smoothed out the computer’s rough edges. Apple miniaturized the internal components, making the new iMac fan-less and even more translucent. Ventilation was inconspicuously added around the computer’s handle for convection cooling. In addition to the five colors previously offered, a special edition iMac was available exclusively in a translucent shade of graphite.

Apple continued to experiment with the iMac’s colors in successive models. In 2000, 4 new colors – Indigo, Ruby, Sage, and Snow joined Graphite at various price points, replacing the 5 original colors. Also bundled with the iMac were Apple’s new Pro Keyboard and Mouse, the latter proving to be much more ergonomically popular with customers than the “hockey puck” mouse that shipped with the first iMacs.

All 13 of the G3-based iMac’s colors.

In early 2001, Ruby, Sage, and Snow made way for two new “colors” that Steve Jobs said were in the works for 18 months. Both “Flower Power” and “Blue Dalmatian” iMacs featured patterns molded directly into the plastic case, rather than being applied decals. In July of the same year, Snow returned and both patterns were dropped, leaving three colors in the line.

The Ultimate Digital Hub

At Macworld San Francisco in 2002, the iMac’s design conversation shifted from color to shape. A ground-up redesign was needed to facilitate the transition from CRT displays to flat panel, LCD technology. Apple chose not to “take a hacksaw to” the outgoing iMac, instead creating an entirely new form which Jony Ive remarked “appears to defy gravity.” A 15-inch LCD panel suspended on a polished neck was anchored by a domed base housing the iMac’s components. By keeping the computer’s chassis distinct from its display, the LCD panel could remain thin and “true to itself,” according to Steve Jobs.

The new design was a perfect example of how constraints can facilitate elegant solutions. Rather than waiting for component technology to catch up with their design ambitions, Apple turned the limitation into a feature. While objectively more modern looking than its predecessor, the new iMac still retained the charm of the original. Some have called it the “Luxo Lamp iMac,” referring to Pixar’s Luxo Jr. , and others have drawn comparisons to the famous 1950s line of Philco Predicta televisions. Pixar even collaborated with Apple to make two animated shorts featuring the iMac. The computer’s radical design has today earned it a place in the Museum of Modern Art’s Architecture and Design department.

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Page last updated on 6 March 2018 Topic last reviewed: 2 April 2015